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{{Infobox person
{{Redirect|Lorde|the feudal rank|Lord}}
 
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|name = Audre Lorde
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|birth name = Audrey Geraldine Lord
[[Image:Audre_lord.jpg|thumb|Audre Lorde]]
 
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|image = [[File:Audre Lorde.jpg]]
'''Audre Geraldine Lorde''' ([[February 18]], [[1934]] - [[November 17]], [[1992]]) was an [[United States|American]] [[writer]], [[poet]] and [[activist]].
 
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|image size =
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|caption = Audre Lorde, Austin Texas, 1980
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|date of birth = Feb. 18, 1934
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|birth place = [[New York City]], New York, USA
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|date of death = Nov. 17, 1992
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|death place = St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands
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|occupation = Poet, writer, activist, essayist
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|parents = Fredrick Byron Lorde & Linda Gertrude Belmar Lorde
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|spouse = Edwin Rollins (ex-husband)
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|partner =
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|website =
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}}
   
 
'''Audre Lorde''' (born '''Audrey Geraldine Lorde''', February 18, 1934 November 17, 1992) was a Caribbean-American writer and civil rights activist.
==Life==
 
Lorde was born in [[New York City]] to Caribbean immigrants who settled in [[Harlem]], Frederick Byron Lorde and Linda Gertrude Belmar Lorde. Lorde was [[nearsighted]] and legally blind. The youngest of three daughters, she grew up in Harlem, hearing her mother's stories about the [[West Indies]]. She learned to talk while she learned to read, at the age of four. Her mother taught her to write during this time. She wrote her first poem when she was in the eighth grade. After graduating from [[Hunter College High School]], she attended [[Hunter College]] from [[1954]] to [[1959]], graduating with a bachelors degree. While studying [[library science]], Lorde supported herself working various odd jobs: factory worker, [[ghost writer]], social worker, X-ray technician, medical clerk, and arts and crafts supervisor.
 
   
 
== Life and work ==
In [[1954]], she spent a pivotal year as a student at the [[National University of Mexico]], a period described by Lorde as a time of affirmation and renewal because she confirmed her identity on personal and artistic levels as a lesbian and poet. On her return to New York, Lorde went to college, worked as a [[librarian]], continued writing, and became an active participant in the gay culture of [[Greenwich Village]]. Lorde furthered her education at [[Columbia University]], earning a master’s degree in library science in [[1961]]. During this time she also worked as a librarian at [[Mount Vernon, New York|Mount Vernon]] Public Library and married attorney Edwin Rollins; they later divorced in [[1970]] after having two children, Elizabeth and Jonathan. In [[1966]], Lorde became head librarian at Town School Library in [[New York City]] where she remained until [[1968]].
 
   
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Lorde was born in [[New York City]] to Caribbean immigrants from Barbados and Carriacou, Frederick Byron Lorde (called Byron) and Linda Gertrude Belmar Lorde, who settled in Harlem. Lorde's mother was of mixed ancestry but could pass for white, a source of pride for her family. Lorde's father was darker than the Belmar family liked and only allowed the couple to marry because of Byron Lorde's charm, ambition, and persistence.<ref name=de_Veaux>{{Cite book
During a year in residence at [[Tougaloo College]] in [[Mississippi]], funded by a [[National Endowment for the Arts]] grant, Lorde met Frances Clayton, a white professor of psychology, the woman who was to be her romantic partner until [[1989]]. Lorde was then involved with Gloria Joseph, who was Lorde's partner until Lorde's death.
 
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| title = A Biography of Audre Lorde
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| place =
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| publisher = W.W. Norton & Co.
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| year = 2004
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| pages = 7–13
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| volume =
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| isbn = 978-0-393-32935-3
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| postscript = <!--None-->}}</ref>
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Nearsighted to the point of being legally blind, and the youngest of three daughters (her sisters being named Phyllis and Helen), Lorde grew up hearing her mother's stories about the West Indies. She learned to talk while she learned to read, at the age of four, and her mother taught her to write at around the same time. She wrote her first poem when she was in eighth grade.
   
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Born Audrey Geraldine Lorde, she chose to drop the "y" from her name while still a child, explaining in ''Zami: A New Spelling of My Name'', that she was more interested in the artistic symmetry of the "e"-endings in the two side-by-side names "Audre Lorde" than in spelling her name the way her parents had intended.<ref name=Parks>{{cite web|last=Parks|first=Rev. Gabriele|title=Audre Lorde|work=|publisher=Thomas Paine Unitarian Universalist Fellowship|date=August 3, 2008|url=http://www.tpuuf.org/?p=130|accessdate=July 9, 2009}}</ref>
Lorde died November 17, [[1992]] in [[St. Croix]] after a 14-year struggle with [[breast cancer]]. In her own words, she was a "[[black]], [[lesbian]], [[mother]], [[warrior]], [[poet]]".<ref>{{cite news | last = Tharps | first = Lori L. | coauthors = | title = Speaking the Truth | work = Essence | pages = | language = | publisher = | date = September, 2004 | url = http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1264/is_5_35/ai_n6198441 | accessdate = 2007-03-17 }}</ref> In an African naming ceremony before her death, Lorde took the name ''Gamba Adisa'', which means "Warrior: She Who Makes Her Meaning Known."
 
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<ref name=Lorde>{{cite book|last=Lorde|first=Audre|title=Zami: A New Spelling of My Name|publisher=Crossing Press|year=1982}}</ref>
   
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After graduating from Hunter College High School and experiencing the grief of her best friend Genevieve "Gennie" Thompson's death, Lorde immediately left her parents' home and became estranged from her family. She attended Hunter College from 1954 to 1959 and graduated with a bachelor's degree. While studying library science, Lorde supported herself by working various odd jobs such as factory worker, ghost writer, social worker, X-ray technician, medical clerk, and arts and crafts supervisor, moving out of Harlem to Stamford, Connecticut and beginning to explore her [[lesbian]] sexuality.
==Career==
 
Lorde’s poetry was published regularly during the 1960s: in [[Langston Hughes]]'s [[1962]] New Negro Poets, USA; in several foreign anthologies; and in black literary magazines. During this time she was politically active in the civil rights, antiwar, and feminist movements. Her first volume of poetry, ''The First Cities'' (1968), was published by the Poet's Press and edited by [[Diane di Prima]], a former classmate and friend from [[Hunter College High School]]. [[Dudley Randall]], a poet and critic, asserted in his review of the book that "[Lorde] does not wave a black flag, but her blackness is there, implicit, in the bone." Lorde's second volume, ''Cables to Rage'' (1970), which was mainly written during her tenure at [[Tougaloo College]] in [[Mississippi]], addresses themes of love, betrayal, childbirth, and the complexities of raising children. It is particularly noteworthy for the poem "Martha", in which Lorde poetically confirms her [[homosexuality]]: "we shall love each other here if ever at all." Later books continued her political aims in [[Lesbian]] and [[Gay rights]] and [[feminism]].
 
   
 
In 1954, she spent a pivotal year as a student at the National University of Mexico, a period she described as a time of affirmation and renewal: she confirmed her identity on personal and artistic levels as a [[lesbian]] and poet. On her return to New York, she attended college, worked as a librarian, continued writing and became an active participant in the [[Sexuality and gender identity-based cultures#LGBT culture|gay culture]] of [[Greenwich Village]]. She furthered her education at Columbia University, earning a master's degree in library science in 1961. She also worked during this time as a librarian at Mount Vernon Public Library and married attorney Edwin Rollins; they divorced in 1970 after having two children, Elizabeth and Jonathan. In 1966, Lorde became head librarian at Town School Library in New York City, where she remained until 1968.<ref>{{cite web|last=Kulii|first=Beverly Threatt|title=Audre Lorde's Life and Career|url=http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/g_l/lorde/life.htm|work=University of Illinois Department of English website|publisher=University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign|accessdate=8 March 2013|coauthors=Ann E. Reuman and Ann Trapasso}}</ref>
In [[1980]], Audre Lorde, [[Barbara Smith]] and [[Cherrie Moraga]] co-founded [[Kitchen Table: Women of Color Press]], the first U.S. publisher for women of color.
 
   
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In 1968 Lorde was writer-in-residence at Tougaloo College in Mississippi,<ref name=poets.org>{{cite web|title=Audre Lorde|work=|publisher=Poets.org|date=|url=http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/306|accessdate=July 9, 2009}}</ref> where she met Frances Clayton, a white professor of psychology, who was to be her romantic partner until 1989. From 1977 to 1978 Lorde had a brief affair with the sculptor and painter [[Mildred Thompson]]. The two met in Nigeria in 1977 at the Second World Black and African Festival of Arts and Culture (FESTAC 77). Their affair ran its course during the time that Thompson lived in Washington, D.C.<ref name=de_Veaux>{{Cite book
Lorde was named State Poet of New York from [[1991]] to [[1992]].<ref>{{cite web | url= http://www.enotes.com/poetry-criticism/lorde-audre | title= Audre Lorde at eNotes.com | accessdate=2007-01-05 | format= |work= }}</ref>
 
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| last = De Veaux
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| first = Alexis
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| author-link =
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| last2 =
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| first2 =
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| author2-link =
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| title = A Biography of Audre Lorde
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| place =
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| publisher = W.W. Norton & Co.
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| year = 2004
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| page = 174
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| volume =
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| isbn = 978-0-393-32935-3
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| postscript = <!--None-->}}</ref> and was teaching at Howard University.<ref name=Thompson>{{cite journal
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|last=Thompson
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|first=Mildred
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|authorlink=Mildred Thompson
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|title=Memoirs of an Artist
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|journal=SAGE: A Scholarly Journal on Black Women
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|volume=IV
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|issue=1
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|pages=41–44
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|date=Spring 1987}}</ref> Lorde died on November 17, 1992, in Saint Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands (where she had been living with Gloria I. Joseph), of liver cancer, though she dealt with a 14-year struggle with breast cancer. She was 58. In her own words, Lorde was a "black, lesbian, mother, warrior, poet". In an African naming ceremony before her death, she took the name ''Gambda Adisa'', which means "Warrior: She Who Makes Her Meaning Known".<ref>[http://www.english.uiuc.edu/maps/poets/g_l/lorde/life.htm Audre Lorde biodata - life and death]</ref>
   
==Theory==
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== Last years ==
Lorde criticized feminists of the 1960s, from the [[National Organization for Women]] to [[Betty Friedan]]’s ''[[The Feminine Mystique]]'', for focusing on the particular experiences and values of white middle-class women. Her writings are based on the “theory of difference”: the idea that the binary opposition between men and women is overly simplistic – that although feminists have found it necessary to present the illusion of a solid, unified whole, the category of women itself is full of subdivisions. Lorde identified issues of class, race, age, gender, and even health (this last added as she battled cancer in her later years) as being fundamental to the female experience. She argued that though the gender difference has received all of the focus, these other differences among women are also essential and must be recognized and addressed. “Lorde puts her emphasis on the authenticity of experience. She wants her difference acknowledged but not judged; she does not want to be subsumed into the one general category of ‘woman’” <ref>Birkle 202.</ref>. In a time period in which feminism was run by white middle-class women, Lorde campaigned for a feminist movement that would be conscious of both race and class.
 
   
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Audre Lorde battled cancer for fourteen years. She was first diagnosed with breast cancer in 1978 and underwent a mastectomy. Six years later, Lorde was diagnosed with liver cancer, from which she later died. As a result of her cancer, she chose to become more focused on both her life and her writing. She wrote ''The Cancer Journals'' which in 1981 won the American Library Association Gay Caucus Book of the Year Award.<ref>[http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/g_l/lorde/life.htm]</ref> She featured as the subject of a documentary called ''A Litany for Survival: The Life and Work of Audre Lorde'' that shows Lorde as an author, poet, human rights activist, feminist, and lesbian.<ref>{{cite news| url=http://movies.nytimes.com/movie/133603/A-Litany-for-Survival-The-Life-and-Work-of-Audre-Lorde/overview | work=The New York Times |title=A Litany for Survival: The Life and Work of Audre Lorde (1995)}}</ref> She is quoted in the film: "What I leave behind has a life of its own." "I've said this about poetry; I've said it about children. Well, in a sense I'm saying it about the very artifact of who I have been."<ref>{{cite web|title=A Litany For Survival: The Life and Work of Audre Lorde|url=http://www.pbs.org/pov/alitanyforsurvival/film_description.php|work=POV|publisher=PBS|date=June 18, 1996}}</ref>
While acknowledging that the differences between women are wide and varied, most of Lorde’s works are concerned with the two subsets which concerned her primarily: race and sexuality. She observes that black women’s experiences are different from white women’s, and that because the experience of the white woman is considered normative, the black woman’s experiences are marginalized. Similarly, the experiences of the lesbian (and, in particular, the black lesbian) are considered aberrational, not in keeping with the true heart of the feminist movement. Though they are not considered normative, Lorde argued that these experiences are nevertheless valid feminine experiences.
 
   
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From 1991 until her death in 1992, she was the New York State Poet Laureate.<ref>{{cite web|title=New York|url=http://www.loc.gov/rr/main/poets/newyork.html|work=US State Poet Laureates|publisher=Library of Congress|accessdate=May 8, 2012}}</ref>
Furthermore, she stunned white feminists with her claim that racism, sexism, and homophobia were linked, all coming from the failure to recognize or inability to tolerate difference. To allow these differences to continue to function as dividers, she believed, would be to replicate the oppression of women; as long as society continued to function in binaries, with a mandatory greater and lesser, Normative and Other, women would never be free.
 
   
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== Work ==
==Lorde and Contemporary Feminist Thought==
 
Lorde set out to actively challenge white women, confronting issues of racism in feminist thought. She maintained that a great deal of the scholarship of white feminists served to augment the oppression of black women, a conviction which led to some angry confrontations on her part, most notably the scathing public letter she published to radical lesbian feminist [[Mary Daly]]. This fervent disagreement with notable white feminists only furthered her persona as an ‘outsider’; “in the institutional milieu of [[black feminist]] and [[black lesbianism|black lesbian]] feminist scholars… and within the context of conferences sponsored by white feminist academics, Lorde stood out as an angry, accusatory, isolated black feminist lesbian voice” <ref>De Veaux 247.</ref>.
 
   
 
Lorde's poetry was published very regularly during the 1960s in [[Langston Hughes]]' 1962 ''New Negro Poets, USA''; in several foreign anthologies; and in black literary magazines. During this time, she was politically active in civil rights, anti-war, and feminist movements. Her first volume of poetry, ''The First Cities'' (1968), was published by the Poet's Press and edited by [[Diane di Prima]], a former classmate and friend from Hunter College High School. Dudley Randall, a poet and critic, asserted in his review of the book that Lorde "does not wave a black flag, but her blackness is there, implicit, in the bone."<ref>{{cite journal|last=Randall|first=Dudley|coauthors=various|title=Books Noted|journal=Negro Digest|year=1968|month=September|volume=17|issue=12|pages=96|url=http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=PjoDAAAAMBAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false|accessdate=8 March 2013|editor1-first=Johnson|editor1-last=John H.|page=13|publisher=Johnson Publishing Company}}</ref>
The criticism did not go merely one way; many white feminists were angered by Lorde’s brand of feminism. In her essay “The Master’s Tools Will Never Dismantle the Master’s House” (compiled in ''[[Sister Outsider]]''), Lorde attacked the underlying racism of feminism, calling it unrecognized dependence on the patriarchy. She argued that by denying difference in the category of women, feminists merely passed on old systems of oppression, and that by doing so they were preventing any real, lasting change from occurring. Her argument aligned white feminists with white male slave-masters, describing both as “agents of oppression” <ref>De Veaux 249.</ref>. In doing so, she enraged a great deal of white feminists, who saw her essay as an attempt to privilege her identities as black and lesbian, and assume a moral authority based on suffering. Suffering was a condition universal to women, they claimed, and to accuse feminists of racism would cause divisiveness rather than heal it.{{fact|date=February 2008}}
 
   
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Her second volume, ''Cables to Rage'' (1970), which was mainly written during her tenure at Tougaloo College in Mississippi, addressed themes of love, betrayal, childbirth and the complexities of raising children. It is particularly noteworthy for the poem "Martha", in which Lorde poetically confirms her homosexuality: ''"We shall love each other here if ever at all."'' Later books continued her political aims in lesbian and gay rights, and feminism. In 1980, together with Barbara Smith and Cherríe Moraga, she co-founded Kitchen Table: Women of Color Press, the first U.S. publisher for women of color. Lorde was State Poet of New York from 1991 to 1992.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.enotes.com/poetry-criticism/lorde-audre|title=Audre Lorde 1934–1992|publisher=Enotes.com|accessdate=2009-07-09}}</ref>
==Poetry==
 
A contemporary of feminist poets such as [[Sylvia Plath]] and [[Adrienne Rich]], Lorde also expressed her femininity through poetry. While Plath and Rich were changing the traditions of both prose and poetry to make them more autobiographical, Lorde combined genres at will; for Lorde, life was essential to text, so everything became autobiographical.
 
   
 
=== Poetry ===
Lorde focused her discussion of difference not only on differences between groups of women, but between conflicting differences within the individual. “I am defined as other in every group I’m part of, she stated. “The outsider, both strength and weakness. Yet without community there is certainly no liberation, no future, only the most vulnerable and temporary armistice between me and my oppression” <ref>''The Cancer Journals'' 12-13.</ref>. She described herself both as a part of a “continuum of women” <ref>''The Cancer Journals'' 17.</ref> and as a “concert of voices” within herself <ref>''The Cancer Journals'' 31.</ref>. Her conception of her many layers of self-hood is replicated in the multi-genres of her work. Critic Carmen Birkle states, “Her multicultural self is thus reflected in a multicultural text, in multi-genres, in which the individual cultures are no longer separate and autonomous entities but melt into a larger whole without losing their individual importance” <ref>Birkle 180</ref>. Her refusal to be placed in a particular category, whether social or literary, was characteristic of her determination to come across as an individual rather than a stereotype.
 
   
 
Lorde focused her discussion of difference not only on differences between groups of women but between conflicting differences within the individual. "I am defined as other in every group I'm part of", she declared. "The outsider, both strength and weakness. Yet without community there is certainly no liberation, no future, only the most vulnerable and temporary armistice between me and my oppression."<ref>''The Cancer Journals'', pp. 12–13.</ref> She described herself both as a part of a "continuum of women"<ref>''The Cancer Journals'', p. 17.</ref> and a "concert of voices" within herself.<ref>''The Cancer Journals'', p. 31.</ref>
==Bibliography==
 
Birkle, Carme. ''Women’s Stories of the Looking Glass.'' Munich: Wilhelm Fink Verlag, 1996.
 
   
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Her conception of her many layers of self-hood is replicated in the multi-genres of her work. Critic Carmen Birkle wrote: "Her multicultural self is thus reflected in a multicultural text, in multi-genres, in which the individual cultures are no longer separate and autonomous entities but melt into a larger whole without losing their individual importance".<ref>Birkle, p. 180.</ref> Her refusal to be placed in a particular category, whether social or literary, was characteristic of her determination to come across as an individual rather than a stereotype.
De Veaux, Alexis. ''Warrior Poet: A Biography of Audre Lorde.'' New York and London: W.W. Norton, 2004.
 
   
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=== Theory ===
Hall, Joan Wylie. ''Conversations with Audre Lorde.'' Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2004.
 
   
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Lorde criticized feminists of the 1960s, from the National Organization for Women to Betty Friedan's ''The Feminine Mystique'', for focusing on the particular experiences and values of white middle-class women. Her writings are based on the "theory of difference", the idea that the binary opposition between men and women is overly simplistic: although feminists have found it necessary to present the illusion of a solid, unified whole, the category of women itself is full of subdivisions.<ref>Olson, Lester C.; "Liabilities of Language: Audre Lorde Reclaiming Difference."</ref>
Lorde, Audre:
 
*''[[The First Cities]]'' ([[1968]])
 
*''[[Cables to Rage]]'' ([[1970]])
 
*''[[From a Land Where Other People Live]]'' ([[1973]])
 
*''[[New York Head Shop and Museum]]'' ([[1974]])
 
*''[[Coal (Lorde)|Coal]]'' ([[1976]])
 
*''[[Between Our Selves]]'' ([[1976]])
 
*''[[The Black Unicorn (Lorde)|The Black Unicorn]]'' ([[1978]], W.W. Norton Publishing)
 
*''[[The Cancer Journals]]'' ([[1980]] [[Aunt Lute Books]])
 
*''[[Chosen Poems: Old and New]]'' ([[1982]])
 
*''[[Zami: A New Spelling of My Name]]'' ([[1983]], [[The Crossing Press]])
 
*''[[Sister Outsider]]: Essays and Speeches'' ([[1984, 2007]], [[The Crossing Press]])
 
*''[[Our Dead Behind Us]]'' ([[1986]])
 
*''[[A Burst of Light]]'' ([[1988]], [[Firebrand Books]])
 
*''[[The Marvelous Arithmetics of Distance]]'' ([[1993]])
 
   
 
Lorde identified issues of class, race, age, gender and even health, this last was added as she battled cancer in her later years, as being fundamental to the female experience. She argued that, although the gender difference has received all the focus, these other differences are also essential and must be recognized and addressed. "Lorde", it is written, "puts her emphasis on the authenticity of experience. She wants her difference acknowledged but not judged; she does not want to be subsumed into the one general category of 'woman'".<ref>Birkle, p. 202.</ref> This theory is today known as [[wikipedia:intersectionality|intersectionality]].
==See also==
 
* [[Audre Lorde Project]], an organization in [[New York City]] named for Audre Lorde
 
* [[Callen-Lorde Community Health Center]], an organization in New York City named for [[Michael Callen]] and Audre Lorde.
 
* [[Teaching for social justice]]
 
* [[Black Feminism]]
 
* [[Black lesbianism]]
 
* [[Womanism]]
 
* [[Critical social theory]]
 
* [[Black women’s literature]]
 
* [[Literary criticism]]
 
* [[African-American literature]]
 
   
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While acknowledging that the differences between women are wide and varied, most of Lorde's works are concerned with two subsets that concerned her primarily — race and sexuality. In Ada Gay Griffin and Michelle Parkerson’s documentary ''A Litany for Survival: The Life and Work of Audre Lorde'', Lorde says, {{cquote|"Let me tell you first about what it was like being a Black woman poet in the ‘60s, from jump. It meant being invisible. It meant being really invisible. It meant being doubly invisible as a Black feminist woman and it meant being triply invisible as a Black lesbian and feminist.".<ref>Griffin, Ada Gay; Michelle Parkerson. [http://bombsite.com/issues/56/articles/1961 "Audre Lorde"], ''BOMB Magazine'' Summer 1996. Retrieved 19 January 2012</ref>}}
==Notes==
 
 
Lorde observes that black women's experiences are different from those of white women, and that, because the experience of the white woman is considered normative, the black woman's experiences are marginalised; similarly, the experiences of the lesbian (and, in particular, the black lesbian) are considered aberrational, not in keeping with the true heart of the feminist movement. Although they are not considered normative, Lorde argues that these experiences are nevertheless valid and feminist.
{{reflist}}
 
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=== Contemporary feminist thought ===
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Lorde set out to confront issues of racism in feminist thought. She maintained that a great deal of the scholarship of white feminists served to augment the oppression of black women, a conviction that led to angry confrontation, most notably in a scathing open letter addressed to the fellow radical lesbian feminist [[Mary Daly]], to which Lorde stated she received no reply.<ref>{{cite book|title=Sister Outsider|last=Lorde|first=Audre|year=1984|publisher=Crossing Press|location=Berkeley|page=66|pages=189|url=http://books.google.com/?id=r3Ct8Qw3de8C|isbn=1-58091-186-2}}</ref> Daly's reply letter to Lorde,<ref>''Amazon Grace'' (N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan, 1st ed. [1st printing?] Jan. 2006), pp. 25–26 (reply text).</ref> dated 4½ months later, was found in 2003 in Lorde's files after she died.<ref>''Amazon Grace'', supra, pp. 22–26, esp. pp. 24–26 & nn. 15–16, citing ''Warrior Poet: A Biography of Audre Lorde'', by Alexis De Veaux (N.Y.: W.W. Norton, 1st ed. 2004) (ISBN 0393019543 or ISBN 0-393-32935-6).</ref>
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This fervent disagreement with notable white feminists furthered her persona as an "outsider": "in the institutional milieu of black feminist and black lesbian feminist scholars [...] and within the context of conferences sponsored by white feminist academics, Lorde stood out as an angry, accusatory, isolated black feminist lesbian voice".<ref>De Veaux, p. 247.</ref>
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The criticism did not go only one way: many white feminists were angered by Lorde's brand of feminism. In her essay "The Master's Tools Will Never Dismantle the Master's House",<ref>''Sister Outsider'', pp. 110–114.</ref> Lorde attacked underlying racism within feminism, describing it as unrecognized dependence on the patriarchy. She argued that, by denying difference in the category of women, white feminists merely passed on old systems of oppression and that, in so doing, they were preventing any real, lasting change. Her argument aligned white feminists with white male slave-masters, describing both as "agents of oppression".<ref>De Veaux, p. 249.</ref>
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In so doing, she enraged a great many white feminists, who saw her essay as an attempt to privilege her identities as black and lesbian, and assume a moral authority based on suffering. Suffering was a condition universal to women, they claimed, and to accuse feminists of racism would cause divisiveness rather than heal it. In response, Lorde wrote "what you hear in my voice is fury, not suffering. Anger, not moral authority."<ref>''Sister Outsider'', p. 132.</ref>
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=== Work in Berlin ===
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During the time period of 1984 to 1992, Lorde spent an expansive amount of time in Berlin, Germany doing activist work with the Afro-German population. She was originally invited to be a guest professor at the John F. Kennedy Institute of North American Studies at the Free University of Berlin in 1984.<ref>http://www.audrelorde-theberlinyears.com/images/presskit/pressRelease.pdf</ref>
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== Works ==
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* ''The First Cities'' (1968).
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* ''Cables to Rage'' (1970){{cite book|title=|isbn=|oclc=}}
 
* ''From a Land Where Other People Live'' (1973){{cite book|title=|isbn=|oclc=}}
 
* ''New York Head Shop and Museum'' (1974){{cite book|title=|isbn=|oclc=}}
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* ''Coal'' (1976){{cite book|title=|isbn=0-393-04439-4|oclc=2074270}}
 
* ''Between Our Selves'' (1976){{cite book|title=|isbn=|oclc=}}
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* ''The Black Unicorn'' (1978, W.W. Norton Publishing){{cite book|title=|isbn=0-393-04508-0|oclc=3966122}}
 
* ''The Cancer Journals'' (1980 Aunt Lute Books){{cite book|title=|isbn=|oclc=}}
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=== Kore Press ===
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*''Uses of the Erotic: The Erotic as Power'' (1981 Kore Books){{cite book|title=Uses of the Erotic|isbn=978-1-888553-10-9|oclc=}}
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*''Chosen Poems: Old and New'' (1982){{cite book|title=|isbn=0-393-01576-9|oclc=8114592}}
 
*''Zami: A New Spelling of My Name'' (1983, The Crossing Press{{cite book|title=|isbn=|oclc=}})
 
*''Sister Outsider: Essays and Speeches'' (1984, 2007, The Crossing Press){{cite book|title=|isbn=|oclc=}}
  +
*''Our Dead Behind Us'' (1986){{cite book|title=|isbn=0-393-02329-X|oclc=13870929}}
 
*''A Burst of Light'' (1988, Firebrand Books){{cite book|title=|isbn=0-932379-40-0|oclc=17619136}}
 
*''The Marvelous Arithmetics of Distance'' (1993){{cite book|title=|isbn=0-393-31170-8|oclc=38009170}}
  +
  +
=== Interviews ===
  +
  +
* "Interview with Audre Lorde," in ''Against Sadomasochism: A Radical Feminist Analysis'', ed. Robin Ruth Linden (East Palo Alto, Calif. : Frog in the Well, 1982.), pp.&nbsp;66–71 {{cite book|title=|isbn=0-960-36283-5|oclc=7877113}}
  +
 
== See also ==
  +
 
* [[Audre Lorde Project]], an organization in New York City named for Lorde
 
* [[Callen-Lorde Community Health Center]], an organization in New York City named for [[Michael Callen]] and Lorde
  +
 
== Notes ==
  +
  +
<references />
  +
  +
== References ==
  +
 
* Birkle, Carmen. ''Women's Stories of the Looking Glass.'' Munich: Wilhelm Fink Verlag, 1996. {{cite book|title=|isbn=3-7705-3083-7|oclc=34821525}}
  +
* Byrd, Rudolph; Cole, Johnnetta Betsch; Guy-Sheftall, Beverly. ''I Am Your Sister: Collected and Unpublished Writings of Audre Lorde'' New York: Oxford University University Press, 2009. {{cite book|title=|isbn=978-0-19-534148-5}}
 
* De Veaux, Alexis. ''Warrior Poet: A Biography of Audre Lorde.'' New York and London: W.W. Norton, 2004. {{cite book|title=|isbn=0-393-01954-3|oclc=53315369}}
 
* Hall, Joan Wylie. ''Conversations with Audre Lorde.'' Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2004. {{cite book|title=|isbn=1-57806-642-5|oclc=55762793}}
  +
* {{cite book
  +
|last=Keating |first=AnaLouise
  +
|title=Women Reading Women Writing: Self-Invention in Paula Gunn Allen, Gloria Anzaldúa, and Audre Lorde
  +
|year=1996
  +
|publisher=Temple University Press
  +
|location=Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  +
|isbn=1-56639-419-8
  +
|oclc=33160820}}
  +
  +
=== Biographical film ===
  +
  +
* [http://movies.nytimes.com/movie/133603/A-Litany-for-Survival-The-Life-and-Work-of-Audre-Lorde/overview?scp=2&sq=%22audre%20lorde%22&st=cse ''A Litany for Survival: The Life and Work of Audre Lorde (1995)''] Documentary by Michelle Parkeson.
 
* [http://www.jenniferabod.com/video.htm ''The Edge of Each Other's Battles: The Vision of Audre Lorde'' (2002)]. Documentary by Jennifer Abod.
  +
* [http://www.audrelorde-theberlinyears.com/expose.html ''Audre Lorde - The Berlin Years 1984 to 1992'' (2012)]. Documentary by Dagmar Schultz.
   
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
   
===Biographical information===
+
=== Profile ===
*[http://www.lambda.net/~maximum/lorde.html Maximum Files]
 
*[http://www.english.emory.edu/Bahri/RYAN.HTML Biography]
 
*[http://www.colorado.edu/journals/standards/V5N1/Lorde/lorde_toc.html A Tribute to Audre Lorde]
 
*[http://voices.cla.umn.edu/vg/Bios/entries/lorde_audre.html Voices From the Gaps: Audre Lorde]
 
*[http://www.jenniferabod.com/video.htm The Edge of Each Other's Battles: The Vision of Audre Lorde] - a documentary by Jennifer Abod
 
*[http://www.english.uiuc.edu/maps/poets/g_l/lorde/life.htm Audre Lorde's Life - Modern American Poetry]
 
   
  +
* [http://www.poetryfoundation.org/bio/audre-lorde Profile and poems] at the Poetry Foundation
{{wikiquote}}
 
  +
* [http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/306 Profile and poems written and audio] at Academy of American Poets
 
* [http://voices.cla.umn.edu/artistpages/lorde_audre.php "Voices From the Gaps: Audre Lorde". Profile. University of Minnesota]
 
* [http://www.english.uiuc.edu/maps/poets/g_l/lorde/life.htm Profile at Modern American Poetry]
   
  +
=== Articles and archive ===
{{Lorde}}
 
  +
  +
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2008/oct/13/blackhistorymonth-equality?INTCMP=SRCH "The enemy of silence". ''The Guardian'' 13 October 2008] by Jackie Kay
  +
* {{worldcat id|id=lccn-n50-42298}}
  +
* [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CE6D7153CF933A15752C1A964958260&scp=1&sq=%22audre%20lorde%22&st=cse ''New York Times'' "Audre Lorde, 58, A Poet, Memoirist And Lecturer, Dies" 20 November 1992]
  +
* [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa4081/is_200403/ai_n9364242/?tag=rel.res3 "Audre Lorde: Black, Feminist, Lesbian, Mother, Poet". ''The Crisis'' journal. March/April 2004]
  +
  +
  +
{{Wikipedia}}
   
 
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[[Category:African American novelists]]
 
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[[Category:Columbia University alumni]]
 
[[Category:Feminist scholars]]
 
[[Category:Feminist writers]]
 
 
[[Category:Lesbian writers]]
 
[[Category:Lesbian writers]]
 
[[Category:LGBT rights activists from the United States]]
 
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Latest revision as of 16:35, 31 October 2016

Audre Lorde
OccupationPoet, writer, activist, essayist
ParentsFredrick Byron Lorde & Linda Gertrude Belmar Lorde
SpouseEdwin Rollins (ex-husband)

Audre Lorde (born Audrey Geraldine Lorde, February 18, 1934 – November 17, 1992) was a Caribbean-American writer and civil rights activist.

Life and work

Lorde was born in New York City to Caribbean immigrants from Barbados and Carriacou, Frederick Byron Lorde (called Byron) and Linda Gertrude Belmar Lorde, who settled in Harlem. Lorde's mother was of mixed ancestry but could pass for white, a source of pride for her family. Lorde's father was darker than the Belmar family liked and only allowed the couple to marry because of Byron Lorde's charm, ambition, and persistence.[1] Nearsighted to the point of being legally blind, and the youngest of three daughters (her sisters being named Phyllis and Helen), Lorde grew up hearing her mother's stories about the West Indies. She learned to talk while she learned to read, at the age of four, and her mother taught her to write at around the same time. She wrote her first poem when she was in eighth grade.

Born Audrey Geraldine Lorde, she chose to drop the "y" from her name while still a child, explaining in Zami: A New Spelling of My Name, that she was more interested in the artistic symmetry of the "e"-endings in the two side-by-side names "Audre Lorde" than in spelling her name the way her parents had intended.[2] [3]

After graduating from Hunter College High School and experiencing the grief of her best friend Genevieve "Gennie" Thompson's death, Lorde immediately left her parents' home and became estranged from her family. She attended Hunter College from 1954 to 1959 and graduated with a bachelor's degree. While studying library science, Lorde supported herself by working various odd jobs such as factory worker, ghost writer, social worker, X-ray technician, medical clerk, and arts and crafts supervisor, moving out of Harlem to Stamford, Connecticut and beginning to explore her lesbian sexuality.

In 1954, she spent a pivotal year as a student at the National University of Mexico, a period she described as a time of affirmation and renewal: she confirmed her identity on personal and artistic levels as a lesbian and poet. On her return to New York, she attended college, worked as a librarian, continued writing and became an active participant in the gay culture of Greenwich Village. She furthered her education at Columbia University, earning a master's degree in library science in 1961. She also worked during this time as a librarian at Mount Vernon Public Library and married attorney Edwin Rollins; they divorced in 1970 after having two children, Elizabeth and Jonathan. In 1966, Lorde became head librarian at Town School Library in New York City, where she remained until 1968.[4]

In 1968 Lorde was writer-in-residence at Tougaloo College in Mississippi,[5] where she met Frances Clayton, a white professor of psychology, who was to be her romantic partner until 1989. From 1977 to 1978 Lorde had a brief affair with the sculptor and painter Mildred Thompson. The two met in Nigeria in 1977 at the Second World Black and African Festival of Arts and Culture (FESTAC 77). Their affair ran its course during the time that Thompson lived in Washington, D.C.[1] and was teaching at Howard University.[6] Lorde died on November 17, 1992, in Saint Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands (where she had been living with Gloria I. Joseph), of liver cancer, though she dealt with a 14-year struggle with breast cancer. She was 58. In her own words, Lorde was a "black, lesbian, mother, warrior, poet". In an African naming ceremony before her death, she took the name Gambda Adisa, which means "Warrior: She Who Makes Her Meaning Known".[7]

Last years

Audre Lorde battled cancer for fourteen years. She was first diagnosed with breast cancer in 1978 and underwent a mastectomy. Six years later, Lorde was diagnosed with liver cancer, from which she later died. As a result of her cancer, she chose to become more focused on both her life and her writing. She wrote The Cancer Journals which in 1981 won the American Library Association Gay Caucus Book of the Year Award.[8] She featured as the subject of a documentary called A Litany for Survival: The Life and Work of Audre Lorde that shows Lorde as an author, poet, human rights activist, feminist, and lesbian.[9] She is quoted in the film: "What I leave behind has a life of its own." "I've said this about poetry; I've said it about children. Well, in a sense I'm saying it about the very artifact of who I have been."[10]

From 1991 until her death in 1992, she was the New York State Poet Laureate.[11]

Work

Lorde's poetry was published very regularly during the 1960s — in Langston Hughes' 1962 New Negro Poets, USA; in several foreign anthologies; and in black literary magazines. During this time, she was politically active in civil rights, anti-war, and feminist movements. Her first volume of poetry, The First Cities (1968), was published by the Poet's Press and edited by Diane di Prima, a former classmate and friend from Hunter College High School. Dudley Randall, a poet and critic, asserted in his review of the book that Lorde "does not wave a black flag, but her blackness is there, implicit, in the bone."[12]

Her second volume, Cables to Rage (1970), which was mainly written during her tenure at Tougaloo College in Mississippi, addressed themes of love, betrayal, childbirth and the complexities of raising children. It is particularly noteworthy for the poem "Martha", in which Lorde poetically confirms her homosexuality: "We shall love each other here if ever at all." Later books continued her political aims in lesbian and gay rights, and feminism. In 1980, together with Barbara Smith and Cherríe Moraga, she co-founded Kitchen Table: Women of Color Press, the first U.S. publisher for women of color. Lorde was State Poet of New York from 1991 to 1992.[13]

Poetry

Lorde focused her discussion of difference not only on differences between groups of women but between conflicting differences within the individual. "I am defined as other in every group I'm part of", she declared. "The outsider, both strength and weakness. Yet without community there is certainly no liberation, no future, only the most vulnerable and temporary armistice between me and my oppression."[14] She described herself both as a part of a "continuum of women"[15] and a "concert of voices" within herself.[16]

Her conception of her many layers of self-hood is replicated in the multi-genres of her work. Critic Carmen Birkle wrote: "Her multicultural self is thus reflected in a multicultural text, in multi-genres, in which the individual cultures are no longer separate and autonomous entities but melt into a larger whole without losing their individual importance".[17] Her refusal to be placed in a particular category, whether social or literary, was characteristic of her determination to come across as an individual rather than a stereotype.

Theory

Lorde criticized feminists of the 1960s, from the National Organization for Women to Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique, for focusing on the particular experiences and values of white middle-class women. Her writings are based on the "theory of difference", the idea that the binary opposition between men and women is overly simplistic: although feminists have found it necessary to present the illusion of a solid, unified whole, the category of women itself is full of subdivisions.[18]

Lorde identified issues of class, race, age, gender and even health, this last was added as she battled cancer in her later years, as being fundamental to the female experience. She argued that, although the gender difference has received all the focus, these other differences are also essential and must be recognized and addressed. "Lorde", it is written, "puts her emphasis on the authenticity of experience. She wants her difference acknowledged but not judged; she does not want to be subsumed into the one general category of 'woman'".[19] This theory is today known as intersectionality.

While acknowledging that the differences between women are wide and varied, most of Lorde's works are concerned with two subsets that concerned her primarily — race and sexuality. In Ada Gay Griffin and Michelle Parkerson’s documentary A Litany for Survival: The Life and Work of Audre Lorde, Lorde says,

"Let me tell you first about what it was like being a Black woman poet in the ‘60s, from jump. It meant being invisible. It meant being really invisible. It meant being doubly invisible as a Black feminist woman and it meant being triply invisible as a Black lesbian and feminist.".[20]

Lorde observes that black women's experiences are different from those of white women, and that, because the experience of the white woman is considered normative, the black woman's experiences are marginalised; similarly, the experiences of the lesbian (and, in particular, the black lesbian) are considered aberrational, not in keeping with the true heart of the feminist movement. Although they are not considered normative, Lorde argues that these experiences are nevertheless valid and feminist.

Contemporary feminist thought

Lorde set out to confront issues of racism in feminist thought. She maintained that a great deal of the scholarship of white feminists served to augment the oppression of black women, a conviction that led to angry confrontation, most notably in a scathing open letter addressed to the fellow radical lesbian feminist Mary Daly, to which Lorde stated she received no reply.[21] Daly's reply letter to Lorde,[22] dated 4½ months later, was found in 2003 in Lorde's files after she died.[23]

This fervent disagreement with notable white feminists furthered her persona as an "outsider": "in the institutional milieu of black feminist and black lesbian feminist scholars [...] and within the context of conferences sponsored by white feminist academics, Lorde stood out as an angry, accusatory, isolated black feminist lesbian voice".[24]

The criticism did not go only one way: many white feminists were angered by Lorde's brand of feminism. In her essay "The Master's Tools Will Never Dismantle the Master's House",[25] Lorde attacked underlying racism within feminism, describing it as unrecognized dependence on the patriarchy. She argued that, by denying difference in the category of women, white feminists merely passed on old systems of oppression and that, in so doing, they were preventing any real, lasting change. Her argument aligned white feminists with white male slave-masters, describing both as "agents of oppression".[26]

In so doing, she enraged a great many white feminists, who saw her essay as an attempt to privilege her identities as black and lesbian, and assume a moral authority based on suffering. Suffering was a condition universal to women, they claimed, and to accuse feminists of racism would cause divisiveness rather than heal it. In response, Lorde wrote "what you hear in my voice is fury, not suffering. Anger, not moral authority."[27]

Work in Berlin

During the time period of 1984 to 1992, Lorde spent an expansive amount of time in Berlin, Germany doing activist work with the Afro-German population. She was originally invited to be a guest professor at the John F. Kennedy Institute of North American Studies at the Free University of Berlin in 1984.[28]

Works

  • The First Cities (1968).
  • Cables to Rage (1970) . 
  • From a Land Where Other People Live (1973) . 
  • New York Head Shop and Museum (1974) . 
  • Coal (1976) . ISBN 0-393-04439-4. OCLC 2074270. 
  • Between Our Selves (1976) . 
  • The Black Unicorn (1978, W.W. Norton Publishing) . ISBN 0-393-04508-0. OCLC 3966122. 
  • The Cancer Journals (1980 Aunt Lute Books) . 

Kore Press

Interviews

  • "Interview with Audre Lorde," in Against Sadomasochism: A Radical Feminist Analysis, ed. Robin Ruth Linden (East Palo Alto, Calif. : Frog in the Well, 1982.), pp. 66–71 . ISBN 0-960-36283-5. OCLC 7877113. 

See also

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 De Veaux, Alexis (2004). A Biography of Audre Lorde. W.W. Norton & Co., 7–13. ISBN 978-0-393-32935-3.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "de_Veaux" defined multiple times with different content
  2. Parks, Rev. Gabriele (August 3, 2008). Audre Lorde. Thomas Paine Unitarian Universalist Fellowship. Retrieved on July 9, 2009.
  3. Lorde, Audre (1982). Zami: A New Spelling of My Name. Crossing Press. 
  4. Kulii, Beverly Threatt; Ann E. Reuman and Ann Trapasso. Audre Lorde's Life and Career. University of Illinois Department of English website. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Retrieved on 8 March 2013.
  5. Audre Lorde. Poets.org. Retrieved on July 9, 2009.
  6. Thompson, Mildred (Spring 1987). "Memoirs of an Artist". SAGE: A Scholarly Journal on Black Women IV (1): 41–44. 
  7. Audre Lorde biodata - life and death
  8. [1]
  9. "A Litany for Survival: The Life and Work of Audre Lorde (1995)", The New York Times. 
  10. A Litany For Survival: The Life and Work of Audre Lorde. POV. PBS (June 18, 1996).
  11. New York. US State Poet Laureates. Library of Congress. Retrieved on May 8, 2012.
  12. Randall, Dudley; various (September 1968). "Books Noted". Negro Digest 17 (12): 96. Johnson Publishing Company. Retrieved on 8 March 2013. 
  13. Audre Lorde 1934–1992. Enotes.com. Retrieved on 2009-07-09.
  14. The Cancer Journals, pp. 12–13.
  15. The Cancer Journals, p. 17.
  16. The Cancer Journals, p. 31.
  17. Birkle, p. 180.
  18. Olson, Lester C.; "Liabilities of Language: Audre Lorde Reclaiming Difference."
  19. Birkle, p. 202.
  20. Griffin, Ada Gay; Michelle Parkerson. "Audre Lorde", BOMB Magazine Summer 1996. Retrieved 19 January 2012
  21. Lorde, Audre (1984). Sister Outsider. Berkeley: Crossing Press, 189. ISBN 1-58091-186-2. 
  22. Amazon Grace (N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan, 1st ed. [1st printing?] Jan. 2006), pp. 25–26 (reply text).
  23. Amazon Grace, supra, pp. 22–26, esp. pp. 24–26 & nn. 15–16, citing Warrior Poet: A Biography of Audre Lorde, by Alexis De Veaux (N.Y.: W.W. Norton, 1st ed. 2004) (ISBN 0393019543 or ISBN 0-393-32935-6).
  24. De Veaux, p. 247.
  25. Sister Outsider, pp. 110–114.
  26. De Veaux, p. 249.
  27. Sister Outsider, p. 132.
  28. http://www.audrelorde-theberlinyears.com/images/presskit/pressRelease.pdf

References

  • Birkle, Carmen. Women's Stories of the Looking Glass. Munich: Wilhelm Fink Verlag, 1996. . ISBN 3-7705-3083-7. OCLC 34821525. 
  • Byrd, Rudolph; Cole, Johnnetta Betsch; Guy-Sheftall, Beverly. I Am Your Sister: Collected and Unpublished Writings of Audre Lorde New York: Oxford University University Press, 2009. . ISBN 978-0-19-534148-5. 
  • De Veaux, Alexis. Warrior Poet: A Biography of Audre Lorde. New York and London: W.W. Norton, 2004. . ISBN 0-393-01954-3. OCLC 53315369. 
  • Hall, Joan Wylie. Conversations with Audre Lorde. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2004. . ISBN 1-57806-642-5. OCLC 55762793. 
  • Keating, AnaLouise (1996). Women Reading Women Writing: Self-Invention in Paula Gunn Allen, Gloria Anzaldúa, and Audre Lorde. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Temple University Press. ISBN 1-56639-419-8. OCLC 33160820. 

Biographical film

External links

Profile

Articles and archive


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