Early life, acting career
Eleonora Duse was born in Vigevano, Lombardy, and entered acting (her family's profession) as a child. Both her father and her grandfather were actors, and she joined the troupe at age four. Due to poverty, she initially worked continually, traveling from city to city with whichever troupe her family was currently engaged. She came to fame in Italian versions of rôles made famous by Sarah Bernhardt. She gained her first major success in Europe, then toured South America, Russia and the United States; beginning the tours as a virtual unknown but leaving in her wake a general recognition of her genius. While she made her career and fame performing in the theatrical "warhorses" of her day, she is today remembered more for her association with the plays of Gabriele d'Annunzio and Henrik Ibsen.
In 1879, while in Naples, she met journalist Mattino Cafiero, and became involved in a fast paced love affair with him. However, less than a year later, while she was in mid-pregnancy, he left her. The baby did not survive birth, and shortly thereafter Cafiero died as well. Duse then joined Caesare Rossi's theater company, and met actor Teobaldi Checci. The two married in 1881. By 1885, the couple had one daughter, Enrichetta, but divorced following Duse's becoming involved with another actor, Flavio Ando.
By this time, her career was in full swing and her popularity began to climb. She travelled on tour to South America, and upon her return a year later she formed her own company; this meaning that she would assume the responsibilities of both manager and director, as well as star.
Between 1887 and 1894 she had an affair with the Italian poet Arrigo Boito, perhaps best remembered as Verdi's librettist. Their relationship was carried out in a highly clandestine manner, presumably because of Boito's many aristocratic friends and acquaintances. (Despite this, their voluminous correspondence over the years survives.) In later years the two continued to remain on good terms until his death in 1918.
In 1895 she met Gabriele d'Annunzio (who was 5 years her junior), and the two became involved romantically as well as collaborating professionally. Gabriele d'Annunzio wrote four plays for her. In contrast to her relations with Boito, her association with d'Annunzio was widely recognized. When d'Annunzio gave the lead for the premier of the play La Città morta to Sarah Bernhardt instead of Duse, there was a furious fight, and Duse ended her affair with him.
In contrast to Bernhardt's outgoing personality, which thrived on publicity, Duse was introverted and private, rarely giving interviews - preferring instead to let her artistic performances speak for her. The two were unspoken rivals for many years. George Bernard Shaw saw both actresses in London within the span of a few days, in the same play. Shaw gave his nod to Duse and defended his choice in an adamant oratory quoted by biographer Winwar. In regard to her general character, it is important to note that reading was a lifelong passion.
In 1896, Duse completed a triumphant tour of the United States and President Grover Cleveland and his wife attended every performance. Mrs. Cleveland shocked Washington society by giving in Duse's honor the first-ever tea held for an actress. In 1909 she retired from acting, and near to that same time she met and became involved in a lesbian affair with Italian feminist Lina Poletti, a former lesbian lover to writer Sibilla Aleramo. The two lived together in Florence, Italy for two years before ending the relationship.
Her biographer, Frances Winwar, documents that Duse wore little make-up but, "...made herself up morally. In other words, she allowed the inner compulsions, grief and joys of her characters to use her body as their medium for expression, often to the detriment of her health."
Setting a new precedent from actors who previously used set expressions to convey emotions, Duse was the innovator of a technique she described as "elimination of self" to internally connect with the character she was portraying and allow expression to occur.
Over the course of her career, Duse became well-known and respected for her assistance to young actors and actresses during the early stages of their own careers.
Duse suffered from a general ill health (largely pulmonary) throughout most of her adult life, and the many years of touring had taken their toll.
She retired from acting in 1909, but returned to the stage in 1921 in a series of engagements in both Europe and America. During this interval, in 1916, she did make one silent film Cenere (Ashes), prints of which still survive. There was also a certain amount of professional correspondence between Duse and D. W. Griffith; but ultimately nothing came of this.
Duse died of pneumonia (contracted after being caught in the rain) at the age of 65 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in Suite 524 of the Hotel Schenley while on the eastward return leg of a tour of the United States. (The Hotel Schenley is now the William Pitt Union at the University of Pittsburgh.) After being moved to New York City, where she lay in state for four days prior to a funeral service being performed, her body was returned to Italy (where another service was performed). She is buried in Asolo - where she had made her home for the last four years of her life - at the cemetery of Sant' Anna.
"To save the theatre, the theatre must be destroyed, the actors and actresses must all die of the plague. They poison the air, they make art impossible. It is not drama that they play, but pieces for the theatre. We should return to the Greek, play in the open air; the drama dies of stalls and boxes and evening dress, and people who come to digest dinner."
"If I had my will, I would live in a ship on the sea and never come nearer to humanity than that!"
"Ibsen is like this room where we are sitting, with all the tables and chairs. Do I care whether you have twenty or twenty-five links on your chain? Hedda Gabler, Nora and the rest: it is not that I want! I want Rome and the Coliseum, the Acropolis, Athens; I want beauty, and the flame of life."
"To help, to continually help and share, that is the sum of all knowledge; that is the meaning of art."
"If the sight of the blue skies fills you with joy, if a blade of grass springing up in the fields has power to move you, if the simple things of nature have a message that you understand, rejoice, for your soul is alive..."
- Closet Italians: A Dazzling Collection of Illustrious Italians
- Glbtq >> arts >> Duse, Eleonora at www.glbtq.com
- Eleonora Duse at Find a Grave 
- Eleonora Duse: A Biography by Helen Sheehy (2003)
- Eleonora Duse: The Story of Her Life by Jeanne Bordeux (2005)
- The Mystic in the Theatre, Eleonora Duse by Eva Le Gallienne (1965)
- The Last Masquerade by Antonio Orlando Rodriguez (2005)
- Duse by William Weaver (1984)
- Wingless Victory by Frances Winwar (1956)
- Eleonora Duse at the Internet Movie Database
- Template:Ibdb name
- Eleanora Duse and lina Poletti
- Eleanora Duse, affair with Lina Poletti
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