A gay cowboy or lesbian cowgirl is a cowboy or cowgirl who is of the same-sex orientation; moreover, it is a common appellation for gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender participants in re-adaptions of Western American culture, including rodeos, casino gambling and dance parties at country music-oriented clubs. The term gay cowboy arose partly out of the "urban cowboy" phenomenon that was personified in the 1980 film Urban Cowboy.

In recent times, the most well known depiction of gay cowboys is in Brokeback Mountain by Ang Lee.