Yuri (百合?), is a Japanese jargon term for content and a genre involving lesbianism in manga, anime, and related Japanese media. Yuri can focus either on the sexual or the emotional aspects of the relationship, the latter sometimes being called shōjo-ai by western fans.
The themes yuri deals with have their roots in the Japanese lesbian literature of early twentieth century, with pieces such as Yaneura no Nishojo by Nobuko Yoshiya. Nevertheless, it is not until the 1970s that lesbian-themed works began to appear in manga, by the hand of artists such as Ryoko Yamagishi and Riyoko Ikeda. The 1990s brought new trends in manga and anime, as well as in dōjinshi productions, along with more acceptance for this kind of content. In 2003 the first manga magazine specifically dedicated to yuri was launched under the name Yuri Shimai, followed by its revival Comic Yuri Hime, launched after the former was discontinued in 2004.
Although yuri originated in shōjo works, today it is featured in male-targeted (shōnen, seinen) ones as well. Yuri manga from male-targeted magazines include titles such as Kannazuki no Miko and Strawberry Panic!, as well as those from Comic Yuri Hime's male-targeted sister magazine, Comic Yuri Hime S, which was launched in 2007.
Definition and semantic drift
The word yuri (百合?) literally means "lily", and is a relatively common Japanese feminine name. In 1976, Itō Bungaku, editor of Barazoku (薔薇族? lit. rose tribe), a magazine geared primarily towards gay men, first used the term yurizoku (百合族? lit. lily tribe) in reference to lesbian readers in the title of a column of letters called Yurizoku no heya (百合族の部屋? lit. lily tribe's room). It is unclear whether this was the first instance of this usage of the term. From this, many dōjinshi circles incorporated the name "Yuri" or "Yuriko" into lesbian-themed hentai (pornographic) dōjinshi, and the "zoku" or "tribe" portion of this word was subsequently dropped. Since then, the meaning has drifted from its mostly pornographic connotation to describe the portrayal of love, sex, and intimate emotional connections between women.
Japanese vs. western usage
As of 2008, the term yuri is used in Japan to mean the depiction of attraction between women (whether sexual or romantic, explicit or implied) in manga, anime, and related entertainment media, as well as the genre of stories primarily dealing with this content.
In North America, yuri has initially been used to denote only the most explicit end of the spectrum, deemed primarily as a variety of hentai. Following the pattern of shōnen-ai, a term already in use in North America to describe content involving non-sexual relationships between men, western fans coined the term shōjo-ai to describe yuri without explicit sex. In Japan the term shōjo-ai (少女愛? lit. girl love) is not used with this meaning, and instead tends to denote pedophilia, with an equivalent meaning to the English term "girllove". Still, the western use of yuri has broadened in the 2000s, picking up connotations from the Japanese use. American publishing companies such as ALC Publishing and Seven Seas Entertainment have also adopted the Japanese usage of the term to classify their yuri manga publications.
Among the first Japanese authors to produce works about love between women ranks Nobuko Yoshiya, a novelist active in the Taishō and Shōwa periods of Japan, who pioneered in Japanese lesbian literature, including the early twentieth century Class S genre. This kind of stories depicts lesbian attachments as emotionally intense yet platonic relationships, destined to be curtailed by graduation from school, marriage, or death. The root of this is in part the contemporary understanding that same-sex love was a transitory and normal part of female development leading into heterosexuality and motherhood. Class S stories in particular tell about strong emotional bonds between schoolgirls, a mutual crush between an upperclassman and an underclassman.
Around the 1970s yuri began to appear in shōjo manga, presenting some of the characteristics found in the lesbian literature of the early twentieth century. This early yuri generally features an older looking, more sophisticated woman, and a younger, more awkward admirer. The two deal with some sort of unfortunate schism between their families, and when rumors of their lesbian relationship spread, they are received as a scandal. The outcome is a tragedy, with the more sophisticated girl somehow dying at the end. In general, the yuri manga of this time could not avoid a tragic ending, Ryoko Yamagishi's Shiroi Heya no Futari, the first manga involving a lesbian relationship, being a prime example. It is also in this period that shōjo manga began to deal with transsexualism and transvestism, sometimes depicting female characters as manly looking, which was inspired by the women playing male roles in the Takarazuka Revue. These traits are most prominent in Riyoko Ikeda's works, including The Rose of Versailles, Oniisama e... and Claudine...!. Some shōnen works of this period, for example Cutie Honey by Go Nagai, feature lesbian characters too, but these are mostly depicted as fanservice and comic relief.
Some of these formulas began to weaken during the 1990s: manga stories such as Jukkai me no Jukkai by Wakuni Akisato, published in 1992, began to move away from the tragic outcomes and stereotyped dynamics. This stand side-by-side with dōjinshi works, which at the time were largely influenced by the immense popularity of Sailor Moon, the first mainstream manga and anime series featuring a "positive" portrayal of an openly lesbian couple. Male-targeted works such as the Devilman Lady anime series, based on a homonym seinen manga by Go Nagai, began to deal with lesbian themes in a more "mature manner" too. The first magazines specifically targeted towards lesbians appeared around this period, containing sections featuring yuri manga. These stories range from high school crush to lesbian life and love, featuring different degrees of sexual content. It is at this point (the mid 1990s) that lesbian-themed works began to be acceptable.
The later 1990s brought Oyuki Konno's Maria-sama ga Miteru, which by 2004 was a bestseller among yuri novels. This story revisits what was being written at the time of Nobuko Yoshiya: strong emotional bonds between females, mostly revolving around the school upperclassman-underclassman dynamic, like those portrayed in Class S. Another prominent author of this period is Kaho Nakayama, active since the early 1990s, with works involving love stories among lesbians. It is around this point (the early 2000s) that the first magazines speciffically dedicated to yuri manga were launched, containing stories dealing with a wide range of themes: from intense emotional connections such as that depicted in Voiceful, to more explicit school-girl romances like those portrayed in First Love Sisters, passing by realistic tales about love between adult women such as those seen in Rakuen no Jōken. Some of these subjects are seen in male-targeted works of this period as well, sometimes in combination with other themes, including mecha and Science fiction. Examples include series such as Kannazuki no Miko, Blue Drop, and Kashimashi: Girl Meets Girl. In addition, male-targeted stories tend to make extensive use of moe and bishōjo characterizations.
Sun Magazine published the yuri manga Anthology magazine Yuri Shimai between June 2003 and November 2004 in quarterly installments, ending with only five issues. After the magazine's discontinuation, Comic Yuri Hime was launched by Ichijinsha in July 2005 as a revival of the magazine, containing manga by many of the authors who had had work serialized in Yuri Shimai. Like its predecessor, Comic Yuri Hime is also published quarterly. A sister magazine to Comic Yuri Hime named Comic Yuri Hime S was launched as a quarterly publication by Ichijinsha in June 2007. Unlike either Yuri Shimai or Comic Yuri Hime, Comic Yuri Hime S is targeted towards a male audience. Ichijinsha will start to publish light novel adaptations from Comic Yuri Hime works and original yuri novels under their shōjo light novel line Ichijinsha Bunko Iris, scheduled to begin on July 19 2008. Some Japanese lesbian lifestyle magazines contain manga sections, including the now-defunct magazines Anise (1996–97, 2001–03) and Phryné (1995). Carmilla, an erotic lesbian publication, released an anthology of yuri manga called Girl's Only. Additionally, Mist (1996–99), a ladies' comic manga magazine, contained sexually explicit yuri manga as part of a section dedicated to lesbian-interest topics.
The first company to release lesbian-themed manga in North America was Yuricon's publishing arm ALC Publishing. Their works include Rica Takashima's Rica 'tte Kanji!?, which in 2006 was course material for Professor Kerridwen Luis' Anthropology 166B course at Brandeis University, and their annual yuri manga anthology Yuri Monogatari; both first released in 2003. The latter collects stories by American, European and Japanese creators, including Akiko Morishima, Althea Keaton, Kristina Kolhi, Tomomi Nakasora and Eriko Tadeno. These works range from fantasy stories to more realistic tales dealing with themes such as coming out and sexual orientation. Besides ALC Publishing, the Los Angeles-based Seven Seas Entertainment has also incurred in the genre, with the English version of well known titles such as the Kashimashi: Girl Meets Girl manga and the Strawberry Panic! light novels. On October 24 2006, Seven Seas announced the launch of their specialized yuri manga line, which includes works such as the Strawberry Panic! manga, The Last Uniform, and Comic Yuri Hime's compilations such as Voiceful and First Love Sisters.
These lists display stories according to the role yuri plays in them. The first list shows series in which attraction between females and/or lesbian themes play a central role in their storylines. The second list contains stories in which the same subjects are used mostly for comic relief, as fanservice, or for character development in a larger, sometimes unrelated context.
Yuri as a central element
- 12 Days
- Akai Ito
- Akatsuki-iro no Senpuku Majo
- Anata to Scandal
- Blue Drop
- Candy Boy
- Devil Lady
- El Cazador de la Bruja
- First Love Sisters
- Girls' Life
- Girls' Revolution
- Hayate X Blade
- Iono-sama Fanatics
- Kannazuki no Miko
- Kashimashi: Girl Meets Girl
- Kuchibiru Tameiki Sakurairo
- Love My Life
- Maria-sama ga Miteru
- Miyuki-chan in Wonderland
- Oniisama e...
- Ragnarock City
- Read or Dream
- Revolutionary Girl Utena
- R.O.D the TV
- Shiroi Heya no Futari
- Shōjo Sect
- Steel Angel Kurumi 2
- Strawberry Panic!
- Strawberry Shake Sweet
- Stray Little Devil
- Tetragrammaton Labyrinth
- The Last Uniform
- The Sword of Paros
- Yami to Bōshi to Hon no Tabibito
Yuri as an additional element
- Ace o Nerae!
- Air Master
- Azumanga Daioh
- Battle Athletes Victory
- Binbō Shimai Monogatari
- Bubblegum Crisis
- Burst Angel
- Cardcaptor Sakura
- Confidential Confessions
- Cosplay Complex
- Cutie Honey
- Doki Doki School Hours
- Excel Saga
- Family Complex
- Fight! Iczer One
- Futari wa Pretty Cure
- Ghost in the Shell
- Girls Bravo
- Hanaukyo Maid Team: La Verite
- He is my Master
- High School Girls
- Ikki Tousen
- Kaleido Star
- Lady Snowblood
- Magical Girl Lyrical Nanoha
- Najica Blitz Tactics
- Negima!: Magister Negi Magi
- Ninin Ga Shinobuden
- Otome wa Boku ni Koishiteru
- Project A-ko
- Puni Puni Poemy
- Rakka Ryūsui
- Red Garden
- Sailor Moon
- Seraphim Call
- Shattered Angels
- Steel Angel Kurumi
- Stellvia of the Universe
- Stratos 4
- Strawberry Marshmallow
- Sukeban Deka
- Tactical Roar
- The Rose of Versailles
- Touka Gettan
- Ultimate Girls
- Uta Kata
- Vampire Princess Miyu
- Venus Versus Virus
- Yokohama Kaidashi Kikō
- Class S
- Homosexuality in Japan
- Lesbianism in erotica
Notes and references
- Brown, Rebecca (2005). An Introduction to Yuri Manga and Anime (page 1). AfterEllen.com. Archived from the original on 2012-07-19. Retrieved on 2008-01-18.
- Friedman, Erica. Yuri Manga: Maya's Funeral Procession / Maya no Souretsu. Okazu. Retrieved on 2008-02-28.
- Charlton, Sabdha. Yuri Fandom on the Internet. Yuricon. Retrieved on 2008-01-13.
- Joseidōshi no LOVE wo egaita, danshi kinsei no "Yuri būmu" gayattekuru!? (Japanese). Cyzo. Retrieved on 2008-03-21.
- Friedman, Erica. What is Yuri?. What are Yuri and Shoujoai, anyway?. Yuricon and ALC Publishing. Retrieved on 20 May, 2005.
- Fujimoto, Yukari (1998). Watashi no Ibasho wa Doko ni Aruno? (Where do I belong?) (in Japanese). Tokyo: Gakuyo Shobo. ISBN 4313870113.
- Interview: Erica Friedman (page 2). Manga. About.com. Retrieved on 2008-03-06.
- Tsuchiya, Hiromi. "Yoshiya Nobuko’s Yaneura no nishojo (Two Virgins in the Attic): Female-Female Desire and Feminism", Homosexual/Homosocial Subtexts in Early 20th-Century Japanese Culture, San Diego, CA: Abstracts of the 2000 AAS Annual Meeting, March 9–12, 2000. Retrieved on 2008-02-24.
- Maria-sama ga Miteru to Yuri Sakuhin no Rekishi (Japanese). Retrieved on 2008-02-16. Sources: Watashi no Ibasho wa Doko ni Aruno? by Yukari Fujimoto (ISBN 4313870113), Otoko Rashisa to Iu Byōki? Pop-Culture no Shin Danseigaku by Kazuo Kumada (ISBN 4833110679), and Yorinuki Dokusho Sōdanshitsu (ISBN 978-4860110345).
- Yuri Shimai. ComiPedia. Retrieved on 2008-01-19.
- Comic Yuri Hime. ComiPedia. Retrieved on 2008-01-19.
- Ichijinsha's info about Comic Yuri Hime S (Japanese). Ichijinsha. Retrieved on 2008-01-03.
- "Yurizoku no heya (lily tribe's room)" (in Japanese) (November 1976). Barazoku (Rose tribe): 66–70. After this first column, Yurizoku no heya appeared sporadically through the mid-1980s.
- Interview: Erica Friedman (page 1). Manga. About.com. Retrieved on 2008-05-17.
- Miyajima, Kagami (April 4 2005). Shōjo-ai (in Japanese). Sakuhinsha. ISBN 4861820316.
- ALC Publishing. Yuricon. Retrieved on 2008-02-19.
- Yuri on the Seven Seas!. Seven Seas Entertainment. Retrieved on 2007-11-20.
- Suzuki, Michiko (August 2006). "Writing Same-Sex Love: Sexology and Literary Representation in Yoshiya Nobuko's Early Fiction". The Journal of Asian Studies 65 (3). Retrieved on 2008-01-23.
- Robertson, Jennifer (August 1992), “The Politics of Androgyny in Japan: Sexuality and Subversion in the Theater and Beyond”, American Ethnologist 19 (3): 427, doi:10.1525/ae.1992.19.3.02a00010, <http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0094-0496(199208)19%3A3%3C419%3ATPOAIJ%3E2.0.CO%3B2-A>. Retrieved on 22 January 2008
- Dollase, Hiromi (2003). "Early Twentieth Century Japanese Girls' Magazine Stories: Examining Shōjo Voice in Hanamonogatari (Flower Tales)". The Journal of Popular Culture 36 (4): 724–755. doi: . ISSN 0022-3840. OCLC 1754751.
- Natsume, Fusanosuke (1999). Manga no Yomikata (How to read manga). Tokyo: Takarajimasha.
- Schodt, Frederik (1996). Dreamland Japan: Writings on Modern Manga. Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge Press. ISBN 978-1880656235.
- Thorn, Matt. Unlikely Explorers: Alternative Narratives of Love, Sex, Gender, and Friendship in Japanese "Girls'" Comics. Retrieved on 2007-12-05.
- Welker, James (2006). "Beautiful, Borrowed, and Bent: "Boys' Love" as Girls' Love in Shōjo Manga". Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 31 (3): 841. doi:. Retrieved on 2007-11-20.
- Subramian, Erin. Women-loving Women in Modern Japan. Yuricon. Retrieved on 2008-01-23.
- Corson, Suzanne (2007). Yuricon Celebrates Lesbian Anime and Manga. AfterEllen.com. Archived from the original on 2012-12-05. Retrieved on 2007-05-01.
- Ebiharai, Akiko (2002). "Japan's Feminist Fabulation: Reading Marginal with Unisex Reproduction as a Key Concept". Genders Journal (36). Retrieved on 2008-02-17.
- Shōjo Yuri Manga Guide Version 1.6. Yuricon. Retrieved on 2007-11-14.
- Hayama, Torakichi. What is Doujin?. Akiba Angels. Retrieved on 2008-03-07.
- Huxley, John. The Devil Lady Review. Anime Boredom. Retrieved on 2008-02-21.
- Welker, James; Suganuma, Katsuhiko (January 2006). "Celebrating Lesbian Sexuality: An Interview with Inoue Meimy, Editor of Japanese Lesbian Erotic Lifestyle Magazine Carmilla". Intersections: Gender, History and Culture in the Asian Context (12). Retrieved on 2008-01-30.
- ALC Publishing announces yuri manga Works by Eriko Tadeno. Active Anime. Retrieved on 2008-02-24.Works by Eriko Tadeno is an anthology of four stories and three short gag comics that were originally published in Phryné, Anise and Mist magazines.
- Azuma, Erika (June 2004). Yorinuki Dokusho Sōdanshitsu (in Japanese). Hon no Zasshisha. ISBN 978-4860110345.
- Esu toiu kankei (Japanese). Bishōjo gaippai! Wakamono ga hamaru Marimite world no himitsu. Excite. Retrieved on 2008-03-05.
- Newtype USA Reviews Voiceful and First Love Sisters Vol. 1. Seven Seas Entertainment. Retrieved on 2008-01-27.
- Rakuen no Jōken (Japanese). Ichijinsha. Retrieved on 2008-02-28.
- Rasmussen, David. Kashimashi Review. Anime Boredom. Retrieved on 2008-02-28.
- Santos, Carlo. Right Turn Only!!. Anime News Network. Retrieved on 2008-02-28.
- Beveridge, Chris. Kannazuki No Miko Review. AnimeOnDVD.com. Retrieved on 2007-11-20.
- "Yuri anime & gemu daitokushū" (in Japanese) (September 2007). Comic Yuri Hime S (2). ASIN B000VWRJGU.
- Comic Yuri Hime S. ComiPedia. Retrieved on 2008-01-19.
- Ichijinsha Bunko Iris (Japanese). Ichijinsha. Retrieved on 2008-02-26.
- Girl's Only listing at Amazon.co.jp (Japanese). Amazon.co.jp. Retrieved on 2008-01-30.
- Font, Dillon. Pro Amateur Comics - Yuri Doujinshi Rica 'tte Kanji!?. Animefringe. Retrieved on 2008-01-24.
- Yuri Manga in Anthropology Course. Anime News Network. Retrieved on 2008-02-23.
- Luis, Kerridwen. "Syllabus Draft", Unbounded Desires: A Cross-Cultural Look at Non-Heteronormative Sexualities Anth 166B, Brandeis University, December 20 2005. Retrieved on 2008-04-05.
- ALC Publishing Presents Yuri Manga Anthology Yuri Monogatari 4. ComiPress. Retrieved on 2008-02-21.
- Thompson, Jason. Falling for Manga! Part 1: A Quick-hit Guide to Autumn 2007's Hottest Manga. OtakuUSA. Retrieved on 2008-02-20.
- Sparrow, A. E.. 12 Days Review. IGN. Retrieved on 2007-11-21.
- Morishima, Akiko (April 2007). "YurixYuri Kenbunroku" (in Japanese). Comic Yuri Hime (8). ASIN B000PAAJN8.
- Comic-Con International 2007: Seven Seas. Anime News Network. Retrieved on 2007-11-20.
- Blue Review. DVD Vision Japan. Retrieved on 2007-11-21.
- "Yuri anime & gemu tokushū" (in Japanese) (July 2007). Comic Yuri Hime (9). ASIN B000TCTTCY.
- "Yuri Hime Scoop Land" (in Japanese) (March 2008). Comic Yuri Hime S (4). ASIN B0015S8XLO.
- Friedman, Erica. Yuri Manga: Chirality. Retrieved on 2008-04-23.
- Friedman, Erica (2007). Erica Friedman's Guide to Yuri. AfterEllen.com. Archived from the original on 2012-12-08. Retrieved on 2007-11-20.
- Friedman, Erica. Yuri Anime: El Cazador, End of Season Review. Retrieved on 2007-11-14.
- Hen. Anime News Network. Retrieved on 2007-11-21.
- Iono the Fanatics (Japanese). MooNPhase. Retrieved on 2008-01-27.
- Kuchibiru Tameiki Sakurairo. AnimeNfo.com. Retrieved on 2008-01-16.
- Media Blasters Adds Kishi's Maka-Maka Color Yuri Manga. Anime News Network (2008-06-23). Retrieved on 2008-06-23.
- Yuri 101. Yuricon. Retrieved on 2007-11-29.
- Ragnarok City. AnimeNfo.com. Retrieved on 2007-11-27.
- R.O.D the TV Review. Anime-Planet. Retrieved on 2007-12-04.
- Friedman, Erica. Shōjo Sect. Okazu. Retrieved on 2008-04-23.
- Lau, Enoch. Steel Angel Kurumi 2 Review. THEM Anime Reviews. Retrieved on 2007-11-21.
- Strawberry Shake Sweet. AnimeNfo.com. Retrieved on 2007-11-27.
- Chavez, Eduardo M.. Stray Little Devil Vol 4 Review. AnimeOnDVD.com. Retrieved on 2008-01-07. “SLD is unorthodox in the way it almost has created a yuri story in the realm of knight and wizard filled fantasy.”
- Tiu, Diane. Yami to Bōshi to Hon no Tabibito Review. THEM Anime Reviews. Retrieved on 2007-11-22.
- .hack//Sign Review. CAA: Christian Anime Alliance. Retrieved on 2007-12-05. “During the anime the characters Tsukasa and Subaru fall in love. (...) Later on in the series it’s learned that Tsukasa is a girl ([at first] Tsukasa doesn't even know this because his memory was fragmented ever since he was confined in the world). But when they do find out, Subaru does still seem to have feelings for him/her.”
- Friedman, Erica. Aim for the Ace. Okazu. Retrieved on 2007-11-14.
- Beard, Jeremy A.. Air Master Review. THEM Anime Reviews. Retrieved on 2007-11-28., Tucker, Derrick L.. Air Master Review. THEM Anime Reviews. Retrieved on 2007-11-28.
- Brown, Rebecca (2005). An Introduction to Yuri Manga and Anime (page 3). AfterEllen.com. Archived from the original on 2013-01-10. Retrieved on 2008-01-13.
- Binbo Shimai Monogatari. AnimeNfo.com. Retrieved on 2007-11-27.
- Friedman, Erica. Yuri Anime: Bubblegum Crisis/Bugglegum Crash. Okazu. Retrieved on 2007-11-15.
- Friedman, Erica. Yuri Manga: Bakuretsu Tenshi, Volume 1. Yuri Manga: Bakaretsu Tenshi, Volume 2. Yuri Manga: Bakaretsu Tenshi, Volume 2. Okazu. Retrieved on 2008-04-23.
- Confidential Confessions Volume 4. Tokyopop. Retrieved on 2008-04-23.
- Crocker, Janet. Cosplay Complex Review. Animefringe. Retrieved on 2007-12-01. “Jenny, a rabid Italian lesbian with cat fangs who loves Athena.”
- Friedman, Erica. Cutey Honey. Okazu. Retrieved on 2007-11-15.
- Doki Doki School Hours. IMDb. Retrieved on 2008-04-23.
- Thom, Martin. El-Hazard OVA Vol. #3 Review. AnimeOnDVD.com. Retrieved on 2007-12-04.
- Crandol, Mike. Excel Saga DVD 4 Review. Anime News Network. Retrieved on 2007-11-21. Yegulalp, Serdar. DVD of the Week (07-31-03): Excel Saga. TheGline.com. Retrieved on 2007-11-21.
- Ellinwood, Holly. Family Complex Review. Active Anime. Retrieved on 2008-03-18.
- Ross, Carlos. Iczer-One Review. THEM Anime Reviews. Retrieved on 2007-11-21.
- Is Pretty Cure the Next Sailor Moon?. AnimeNation. Retrieved on 2007-11-29. “Furthermore, the first two seasons of Pretty Cure illustrated co-star Nagisa's crush on her classmate Shoujo Fujimura, and frequently hinted at a developing lesbian affection between the two female stars.”
- Lineberger, Rob (2004-10-28). DVD Verdict Review: Ghost In The Shell: Stand Alone Complex (Volume 2). Retrieved on 2008-03-21. “Knowing that our reticent Major has friends is cool; knowing that she shares a lesbian love tryst is really out there.”
- Gilvear, Kevin. Girls Bravo Volume 1 Review. DVD Times. Retrieved on 2007-12-03. “Further examples come later when Kirie runs into Kosame in episode 4, and thus we get another character insight when we learn that Kosame is a lesbian and fancies Kirie.”
- Beveridge, Chris. Godannar Vol. #5 Review. AnimeOnDVD.com. Retrieved on 2008-04-23.
- Toole, Mike. Hanaukyo Maid Team: La Verite vols. 1-3 Review. Anime Jump. Retrieved on 2007-12-04. “The maids are rounded out by Yashima, a security maid with dark skin, a speech impediment, and a lesbian crush on Konoe.”
- Friedman, Erica (February 12 2008). He is My Master Manga, Volume 1 (English). Retrieved on 2008-04-22.
- Friedman, Erica. Yuri Manga: High School Girls, Volume 8 (English). Okazu. Retrieved on 2008-04-23.
- Beveridge, Chris. Ikki Tosen Vol. #3 Review. AnimeOnDVD.com. Retrieved on 2007-11-21. Jones, Davey C.. Ikki Tousen Review. Active Anime. Retrieved on 2007-11-21.
- Friedman, Erica. Kaleido Star. Okazu. Retrieved on 2007-11-15.
- Lady Snowblood Review. RPGnet. Retrieved on 2008-04-23.
- Friedman, Erica. Loveless. Okazu. Retrieved on 2008-04-23.
- Houston, Don. Madlax: Complete Collection Review. DVD Talk. Retrieved on 2007-11-30. “As with other genre picks, there were some hinted at lesbian overtures but nothing as overt as expected.”
- Friedman, Erica. Nanoha. Okazu. Retrieved on 2008-04-23.
- Friedman, Erica. Yuri Anime: Mnemosyne 2. Retrieved on 2008-04-23.
- Divers, Allen. Najica Blitz Tactics DVD 1 Review. Anime News Network. Retrieved on 2007-11-28. “Yes, this show is full of panty shots, upskirt camera angles and a slight lesbian overtone.”
- Friedman, Erica. Negima. Okazu. Retrieved on 2007-11-15.
- Friedman, Erica. Yuri Anime: Ninja Nonsense, Volume 4 (English). Okazu. Retrieved on 2007-11-15.
- Otome wa Boku ni Koishiteru. AnimeNfo.com. Retrieved on 2008-01-16.
- Anderson, Matthew. Project Ako Review. DVD Vision Japan. Retrieved on 2007-11-28. “Yes, Bko is a lesbian, in love with Cko, and all of the people on the ship were women.”
- Smith, Lesley. Puni Puni Poemy Review. DVD Times. Retrieved on 2007-11-28.
- Erica Friedman (2006-12-06). Yuri Manga: Rakka Ryuusui. Retrieved on 2007-11-30.
- Friedman, Erica (April 19 2007). Yuri Manga: Red Garden, Volume 1. Retrieved on 2008-04-22.
- Frost, Marc. Seraphim Call Review. Asian-Stuff. Retrieved on 2008-03-18. “Some scenes of girls in bathing suits and lingerie. Lesbian themes.”
- Friedman, Erica. Yuri Manga: Kyoshiro to Towa no Sora, Volume 2. Retrieved on 2008-04-23.
- Solomon, Charles. Anime, mon amour: forget Pokemon—Japanese animation explodes with gay, lesbian, and trans themes - video. The Advocate. Retrieved on 2008-04-23.
- Beveridge, Chris. Stratos 4 Vol. #3 Review. AnimeOnDVD.com. Retrieved on 2007-11-20. “It's a military show that's not a military show (...) with an aliens invasion storyline that's tied to lesbianism and consuming mass quantities of food.”
- Friedman, Erica (March 3, 2004). Yuri Manga: Sukeban Deka. Retrieved on 2008-05-19.
- Tran, Can. Anime Review of Tactical Roar. GroundReport. Retrieved on 2008-02-04.
- Friedman, Erica. Another Anime With Yuri In It: Touka Gettan. Retrieved on 2008-04-23.
- Jones, Tim. Ultimate Girls Review. THEM Anime. Retrieved on 2008-04-23.
- Friedman, Erica. Yuri Anime: Uta-Kata Revisited. Okazu. Retrieved on 2008-04-23.
- Napier, Susan J. (1998). "Vampires, Psychic Girls, Flying Women and Sailor Scouts", in Martinez, Dolores P.: The Worlds of Japanese Popular Culture: Gender, Shifting Boundaries and Global Culture. Cambridge University Press, 97 and p.107. ISBN 0521631289.
- Venus Versus Virus Ultimate Guide. Seven Seas Entertainment. Retrieved on 2007-12-08. “There is no explicit yuri content in the manga, but the pages are full of subtext.”